[Link] The psychology of change management

Nowadays organizations must constantly change and improve to stay relevant and this means persuading groups and individuals to change the way they work, not an easy task.

Four conditions necessary

In an old article (2003) in the McKinsey Quarterly Lawson and Price identified four conditions for changing employee mind-sets:

  • the employees see the point of the change (know the context, explain the why) and agree with it – at least enough to give it a try;
  • the surrounding structures (reward and recognition systems, for example) must be in tune with the new behavior;
  • employees must have the skills to do what it requires;
  • they must see people they respect modeling it actively.

Each of these conditions is realized independently; together they add up to a way of changing the behavior of people in organizations by changing attitudes. Continue reading “[Link] The psychology of change management”

Publication bias and the decline effect

An interesting effect that I recently stumbled upon: the publication bias.

According to the definition in Wikipedia:

Publication bias occurs when the publication of research results depends on their nature and direction.
Authors are more likely to submit, or editors accept, positive results, while negative or inconclusive results remain unpublished.

One consequence of it, is the decline effect: as studies with more and more data are conducted, they show that the size of the initial hypothesis / conclusion is getting smaller.  
As usual, pictures are worth thousand words:

Diagram with the observed decline effect: more data shows smaller effect
The observed decline effect

What seems to indicate that an effect size is decreasing when the study size increases, is in reality just caused by the publication bias:

The publication bias
The publication bias